Happy International Women’s Day to all the women around the world. As we celebrate this day let us all stand in solidarity to put an end to abuse against women. We must say no to Female Genital Mutilation, Child Marriages, Dowry Killings, Breast Ironing, Rape, Domestic Abuse and all other forms of abuse against women. It is time for governments around the world to properly enforce the laws to protect women. It is time for not just talk but for action as well.
She is just eleven years old, she has yet to get her first period and already she is a wife. Adulthood is forced upon her. She is not prepared for this physically, mentally or emotionally. Her hopes and dreams of staying in school and getting an education is shattered. Her dreams does not matter nor does her happiness. Her parents have received a dowry and now she is married to a man older than her father. Still a child, afraid and confused knowing nothing about sex or marriage and the duties of a wife, she will be forced to have sexual intercourse with a grown man. She will suffer the agony of having her childhood stolen from her and suffer even more through pregnancy and childbirth and there is a possibility that she will die giving birth.
Stripped of her freedom she lives at the mercy of her husband and in-laws. She is often treated like a domestic slave, ill treated by her in-laws and raped by her husband if she resist his advances for sex. Her tears goes unnoticed, her eyes mirrors her pain. For her there is little hope, she has nothing to smile about, all she can do is try and endure the life that has been forced upon her. All of this seems like something from a movie, but it is not, it is real. It is the daily life of child brides around the world. In cultures of ignorance and poverty the children suffers. One such place is Niger
Niger has one of the highest rate of child marriages in the world; 75 percent of girls are married before the age eighteen and many are subjected to a life of domestic and sexual slavery. In Niger the problem is not just the fact that there are child brides but that some of these brides are in fact sold into slavery. ‘Wahaya’ is the term used for girls and women who are sold as fifth wives to men. In Niger men are allowed to have four legal wives and any number of fifth wives.
For these girls and women who are bought as fifth wives, no marriage ceremony takes place and girls do not benefit from any of the legal rights and protection that legal wives have. They are treated as domestic and sexual slaves but are still referred to as wives. They are used for free labor and sex by their masters who are mainly dignitaries or wealthy men.
The legal age for the marriage of a girl in Niger is fifteen years old but as the country struggles with severe drought, failing crops and mass starvation girls as young as seven years old are being sold as child brides. Parents have told activists that although they are unhappy about selling their daughters to men, the food situation have left them with no alternative. Families are using child marriage as a survival strategy to deal with food insecurity. Marrying off a daughter means one less mouth to feed and the dowry she brings in goes to feed the others. Fertility rate is high in Niger with the average household having at least seven children.
The practice of child marriage comes with serious consequences. It impacts negatively on the health of young girls. Having children at such a young age, they are at risk for fistulas (vaginal or anal rupture) which can lead to incontinence. Girls with fistulas are often abandoned by their husbands and scorned by society. The majority of child brides are denied an education. Only 15 percent of adult women in Niger are literate and less than one-third of girls are enrolled in schools.
For places like Niger change will only come when families understand that educating their daughters instead of marrying them off will be more beneficial in bringing economic growth to this starving nation. In a 2001 study UNICEF found that women with seven or more years of education marry an average four years later and have 2.2 fewer children than those with no education.
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) wants the age of marriage to be changed to eighteen years . It says this would give the girls longer time in school and give their bodies time to develop and allow them to reach adulthood. This move will also help to curb the birth rate which is the highest in the world.
Bangladesh Child Brides
Although child marriages is illegal there is an increase in the practice in some developing countries. Bangladesh for instance has the fourth highest rates of child marriages in the world. Young girls are married by the time they hit puberty and usually move in with their husbands right away.
Most child brides become mothers while they are still children themselves. Because their bodies are not yet fully developed they are at risk for prolonged or obstructed labor which threatens both the life of the child and the mother.
Like India one of the main reasons behind child marriages in Bangladesh is poverty and girls from poor families are more likely to become child brides. The illegal dory system is also a contributor. Younger brides often require smaller dowries so parents marry off their girls at a young to avoid paying a high dowry which most of them cannot afford.
These girls are denied a proper education. They suffer from poor health, give birth to children who are weak and malnourished and raise them in poverty. Later on some of these same mothers will force their daughters into early marriage and the vicious cycle continues.
Some parents marry off their daughters because they feel they will be safe under the protection of their husbands. However in many instances these girls are abused by their husbands, sexually,physically, and emotionally. They also suffer at the hands of their in-laws.
Rani is a child bride. She was married at the age of fourteen to the man her mother arranged for her to marry. “I could not go against my mother’s will,” Rani said. “So I agreed to marry him without thinking of other options.”
Rani was constantly beaten by her in-laws and husband . “They beat me for trivial matters,” says Rani. ” If they think the dress I washed is not clean or the food I cooked is not tasty, they beat me.”
“He beats me not only with his hands but he uses his belt to beat me,” she says of her husband. ‘He used to say, “No matter how much you cry or ask for help from others, I will not stop beating you.”
Rani has attempted suicide. She said, “Once I was so tired of his beatings. I felt so desperate. I couldn’t take it anymore, I wanted to give away my life. I tried to commit suicide by hanging myself.” According to Rani her in-laws were actually pleased when they learned she was going to hang herself. “I went inside my room and was preparing to hang myself. I screamed, ‘I am going to take away my life!’ My mother-in-law and my husband were relaxing outside the room,” Rani said. “They were listening to what I was saying but they did not try to save me, as I was a burden to them.”
The neighbors informed Rani’s mother about what was taking place.“Then my brother kicked open the door,” Rani says. “At that time, I had already hanged myself. My mother lost her senses when she saw me hanging from a rope. My brother took me on his lap and got me down from the rope. Then my brother took me to the hospital.”
It has been reported that 51 young brides in Bangladesh committed suicide due to mistreatment by their parents-in-law in just one month in 2004.
- The Selling of Syria’s Refugee Child Brides (iranaware.com)
- 2030: A World Free Of Child Marriage (news.yourolivebranch.org)
- Saudi girl, 15, barricades herself in bedroom after being married to 90-year-old groom for huge dowry (themuslimissue.wordpress.com)